Grupo de Artistas de Vanguardia (1966–68) was an avant-garde collective in Argentina and one of the most outstanding examples of political and investigative art in Latin America. Formed by Graciela Carnevale, León Ferrari, Roberto Jacoby and Norberto Puzzolo, among others, in 1968 they created the project Tucumán Arde, together with a group of artists, journalists and sociologists from Buenos Aires and Rosario who explored, each from its own specificity, the failure of the ‘Tucumán Operation’ launched by the regime of the dictator Juan Carlos Onganía. A governmental campaign promising industrial regeneration and agricultural diversification ended up further impoverishing the population of the province of Tucumán, whose economy was largely dependent on the sugar industry.
Tucumán Arde was also the title of the exhibition presented in Rosario and Buenos Aires in 1968, with the aim of exposing the lies of the official media machine.

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